Anthropological and ethnographic photography in Russian Turkestan [NEW PUBLICATION]

Charles-Eugène Ujfalvy, “Kirghise”, 1881, Bibliothèque nationale de France/Société de Géographie

I spent the better part of 2016 and 2017 at the Bibliothèque nationale de France, where I had the chance to benefit from a Mark-Pigott fellowship to study lesser known series of photographs taken in Central Asia and presented at the French Geographical Society by European travellers during the late 19th century.

Within this very extensive body of visual material taking the form of thousands of lantern slides which I explored under the supervision of the Geographical Society Archive‘s head keeper and photography specialist Olivier Loiseaux, I chose to focus on the work of the Hungarian-French philologist and ethnographer Charles-Eugene Ujfalvy (1842-1904).

I was eventually invited by Svetlana Gorshenina and Sergei Abashin to present the results of my research at a conference organised at the European University in Saint Petersburg (Russia) in May 2019. It proved a wonderful experience, and even lead to my participation to a book edited by Svetlana Gorshenina, Sergei Abashin, Bruno De Cordier and Tatiana Saburova. Titled Photographing Central Asia. From the Periphery of the Russian Empire to Global Presence, the book is a wonderful addition to existing works on visual anthropology in the 19th century and I couldn’t stress how honoured I felt to be invited to publish a chapter alongside Central Asian, Russian and European scholars whose work I had long been reading and admiring.

My chapter is titled : “Picturing the Other, mapping the Self: Charles-Eugène de Ujfalvy’s anthropological and ethnographic photography in Russian Turkestan (1876–1881)”. It combines my earlier research on the European ethnographic and linguistic exploration of Central Asia with a contextualised analysis of the aforementioned material. Drawing upon earlier work by the likes of Svetlana Gorshenina and Marie-Laure Aurenche, among others, it suggests that Ujfalvy’s visual representation of identities attempted to bridge the gap between various anthropological traditions with a nostalgic yet definitely pro-colonial awareness of the changing landscape of Central Asian societies under Russian rule.

The full book including that chapter (pp.39-62) can be downloaded for free here

Photographing Central Asia

Svetlana Gorshenina, Sergei Abashin, Bruno De Cordier and Tatiana Saburova eds., Photographing Central Asia. From the Periphery of the Russian Empire to Global Presence, Berlin : De Gruyter, 2022

Charles-Eugène Ujfalvy, “Intérieur Kirghis”, 1881, Bibliothèque nationale de France/Société de Géographie

Un retour à Grenoble : Stendhal 1837

« Midi sonnait, le soleil était dans toute son ardeur, le silence universel n’était troublé que par le cri de quelques cigales ; c’était le vers de Virgile dans toute sa vérité :

Sole sub ardenti resonant arbusta cicadis.

Une brise légère agitait l’herbe assez longue du glacis qui faisait le premier plan. Au delà, les délicieux coteaux d’Échiroles, d’Eybens, de Saint-Martin-de-Gières, couverts par leurs châtaigniers si frais, déployaient leurs ombres paisibles. Au-dessus, à une hauteur étonnante, le mont Taillefer faisait contraste à la chaleur ardente par sa neige éternelle, et donnait de la profondeur à la sensation.

Vis-à-vis, adroite, la montagne du Villars-de-Lans. (Peut-être que je brouille un peu tous ces noms, mais peu importe, ceci n’est pas un livre d’exactitude, la chose que je conseille de voir existe.) Un tel moment mérite seul un long voyage. »

Stendhal, Mémoires d’un Touriste, p.1854 [1838], Paris : Michel Lévy, pp.146-147 (Passage daté du 24 août 1837)

Les toponymes alpins en transitions // A new project on toponyms and socio-environmental mutations in the Alps

Below is a presentation for a project I just started at the Université Grenoble Alpes :

Les toponymes alpins en transition : mutations socio-écologiques et appropriation des noms de lieux en milieu montagnard

Ce projet vise à rendre compte des héritages et des reconfigurations socio-écologiques contemporaines des noms de lieux montagnards dans l’ouest des Alpes.

En combinant une analyse cartographique diachronique fine à une enquête qualitative auprès des habitants d’un échantillon restreint de communes de moyenne montagne, il permettra d’analyser au plus près du terrain les processus onomastiques qui accompagnent les modifications des milieux et des modes de vie. Cette enquête s’intéressera en particulier à la façon dont les populations montagnardes et les usagers de ces territoires s’approprient ou négligent, réinvestissent ou réinventent les toponymes relatifs aux paysages, plantes, animaux et modes de vie hérités tout en étant partie prenante à la transition écologique à l’œuvre aujourd’hui.

  • Mots-clés :

Toponymie ; Transition écologique ; Géographie linguistique ; Socio-écosystèmes montagnards


Signalétique de randonnée pédestre à Saint-Martin d’Uriage, massif de Belledonne (38). Photographie : Valentine Chauvin)

1 Introduction

Le projet postdoctoral proposé vise à rendre compte des héritages et des reconfigurations socio-écologiques contemporaines des noms de lieux montagnards dans l’ouest des Alpes.

En combinant une analyse diachronique d’un corpus toponymique à une enquête qualitative au contact des habitants d’un échantillon restreint de communes de moyenne montagne, il permettra d’analyser au plus près du terrain les processus onomastiques qui accompagnent les modifications des milieux et des modes de vie.

Cette enquête s’intéressera en particulier à la façon dont les populations montagnardes s’approprient ou négligent, réinvestissent ou réinventent les toponymes relatifs aux paysages, plantes, animaux et modes de vie hérités tout en étant partie prenante à la transition écologique à l’œuvre aujourd’hui.


2 Description du sujet de la mission postdoctorale

2.1 Objectifs de l’étude

Cette étude vise à mieux comprendre comment les noms de lieux rendent compte de l’évolution des milieux montagnards en tant qu’espaces vécus. Cette étude d’ampleur contenue est destinée à produire et traiter, en un cycle de moins d’un an, des matériaux empiriques ancrés dans des territoires alpins de l’Isère et de la Drôme. En co-construisant avec les enquêtés un état des lieux des pratiques de nomination des espaces par leurs caractéristiques écologiques et paysagères, leurs fonctions et leur histoire, il s’agira in fine d’identifier le rôle exercé aujourd’hui par les bouleversements environnementaux et les transformations socio-économiques dans la construction socio-spatiale de ces territoires singuliers.   

Ce projet de recherche postule que les toponymes issus de la fréquentation et des usages de la moyenne montagne par ceux qui l’habitent ou la parcourent esquissent sur le temps long une archive socio-écologique dont l’analyse qualitative s’intègre pleinement aux diverses approches scientifiques d’étude de ces espaces de montagne. Il s’inscrit dans un champ de la toponymie critique fondé sur la complémentarité des approches disciplinaires et des outils de recherche, entre géographie politique et écologie, socio-linguistique et dialectologie.

2.2 Contexte scientifique de la recherche 

Dans l’introduction de son Glossaire des termes dialectaux permettant de trouver le sens d’un grand nombre de toponymes de la nouvelle carte de France au 1:25000, le toponymiste et ingénieur de l’IGN André Pégorier déclarait :

La consultation d’un cadastre, d’une carte, d’un guide touristique ou plus simplement d’un panneau indicateur place l’utilisateur en présence de nombreux noms de lieux dont la signification lui échappe, et dont peut-être même ne soupçonne-t-il pas qu’ils puissent en avoir une. Or si un toponyme doit permettre d’identifier très précisément un détail géographique localisé, il n’a pas été attribué par l’homme de façon arbitraire, mais dans un souci de description du paysage et d’évocation des activités que les habitants y exerçaient. (Pégorier, 2006 : 2)

Quelques décennies plus tard, les débats contemporains sur la toponymie et les 60 000 noms de communes et localités et les 2 millions de lieu-dits que compte la France (Commission Nationale de Toponymie, 2017) semblent se cristalliser dans les divergences et recompositions entre une conception historique figée de cet héritage considéré comme un « patrimoine », une conception « vivante » envisageant ses reconfigurations, et une conception en faisant un élément de projets politiques de revitalisation linguistique et d’affirmation culturelle.

Le nom de lieu est marqué par une double fonction et ne s’accomplit vraiment que dans cette dualité : nom propre, il désigne et établit une identité, mais il a aussi pour particularité courante de définir ou décrire les caractéristiques écologiques et socio-spatiales perçues en un lieu par les personnes qui l’habitent ou le parcourent.

Les approches géographiques du lien entre espace et identité ont révélé plusieurs des façons dont les noms créent le paysage (Seddon, 1997), affirment l’exercice d’un pouvoir sur le territoire et créent un « attachement toponymique », selon la formule de Laura Kostanski (Kostanski, 2009). De façon plus générale, et jusque face aux hégémonies, conflits et tensions territoriales contemporaines, la dimension politique et éventuellement la violence de ces processus ont bien été identifiées et expliquées (Horsman, 2006 ; Radding et Western, 2010 ; Giraut et al., 2008, 2012), mais plusieurs aspects importants restent à explorer, en particulier l’analyse du fonctionnement des phénomènes sociolinguistiques à l’œuvre dans l’appropriation et la construction de l’espace par les noms.

Les toponymes, notamment les oronymes (noms de montagnes), hydronymes (noms de cours d’eau) ou odonymes (noms de routes et voies) sont un enjeu extrêmement familier des géographes, tout comme du grand public, mais ils ne font l’objet d’études systématiques que

de façon ponctuelle et, souvent, marginale, tout en étant plus profondément traités mais sous d’autres angles et par d’autres disciplines, en particulier la linguistique, l’histoire et l’archéologie (Golaski, 1963, 1967). Il n’existe pas à ce jour d’étude géographique des processus de construction toponymique fondée sur une prise en compte fine de ce qui se joue dans le langage lui-même. Cette lacune dans ce champ pourtant ancien et toujours dynamique, notamment en France (voir Dauzat, 1960 ; Giraut, Guyot et Houssay-Holzschuch, 2008, 2012), est peut-être révélatrice de la part extrêmement ténue des raisonnements et méthodes linguistiques en géographie. Une approche nourrie notamment par une plus grande complémentarité avec les travaux de « géographie linguistique » développés dans le champ disciplinaire de la linguistique pourrait contribuer à remédier à la rareté des travaux sur la spatialité des langues chez les géographes (Withers, 1984, 2017).

Le travail sur les toponymes de montagne développé par la linguiste grenobloise Samia Ounoughi donne par exemple quelques clefs particulièrement stimulantes de lecture linguistique des productions toponymiques nées de l’exploration géographique au XIXème siècle (Ounoughi, 2018). Se penchant sur des noms de lieux des Alpes dans le contexte des voyages d’alpinistes britanniques effectuant alors des courses en haute montagne, elle définit les modalités de la phase de « toponymation », c’est-à-dire « le processus performatif de nomination d’un lieu », s’inscrivant parfois dans une concurrence entre acteurs, et plus généralement la « topogenèse », incluant également la progressive définition d’un consensus toponymique (Ounoughi, 2018 : 9).

Si l’on peut percevoir dans les processus de toponymation la complexité de la dimension collective et négociée de l’écriture géographique, le contexte scientifique décrit plus haut invite à la prudence, car s’il ne fait pas de doute que les toponymes reflètent aujourd’hui non seulement les modes de vie mais aussi « l’imaginaire social de la montagne » (Bozonnet, 1992) et certaines de ses reconfigurations socio-économiques contemporaines comme sa mise en tourisme (Debarbieux & Gumuchian, 1987), les excès de l’utilisation parascientifique des toponymes comme témoignages historiques ou écologiques sont bien connus : les noms de lieux ne sont jamais des preuves et toujours des indices. Cela est particulièrement sensible dans le cadre de l’étude des toponymes comme témoignages biogéographiques, comme l’ont par exemple montré en France des travaux sur le couvert forestier (Tarze, Tamine, Mustière, Badeau, Dupouey, 2015).

Le présent projet vise donc d’abord à étudier ces noms comme représentations et comme imaginaires socio-écologiques pour mieux comprendre les mutations de ces territoires. La recherche contemporaine sur les services écosystémiques constitue un cadre d’analyse particulièrement stimulant qui pourra aider à mieux saisir les relations entre les socio-écosystèmes des territoires étudiés et leurs représentations (voir notamment Lamarque, Quétier, Lavorel, 2011). L’enquête double qui sera menée dans le cadre de ce projet, dont la démarche est résolument ancrée dans la géographie humaine, devra donc aussi tirer profit de ces approches scientifiques pour appréhender finement les représentations des dynamiques transitionnelles à l’œuvre dans les territoires étudiés.

3 Démarche de recherche et méthodes

Le programme de recherche prévoit d’étudier des communes de montagne des Alpes françaises en suivant une approche duale composée de deux approches méthodologiques éprouvées en géographie humaine : 

– une analyse d’un corpus toponymique tiré de la cartographie et de la signalétique

– une enquête qualitative composée d’entretiens et parcours commentés 

Il semble préférable que les communes choisies dans une visée comparative soient peu nombreuses (trois ou quatre maximum) pour permettre la réalisation de ce programme de recherche de façon réaliste en moins d’un an et correspondent à des territoires marqués par un habitat permanent et des activités diversifiées. Le choix de se concentrer sur des espaces ruraux de moyenne montagne en découle directement, ainsi que celui de choisir des communes situées dans les trois massifs environnant la métropole grenobloise.

Trois communes semblent particulièrement adaptées à la mise en œuvre de cette enquête par leur situation, leur taille, la diversité de caractéristiques écologiques et de leurs activités socio-économiques.

3.1 Analyse cartographique et toponymie historique

L’étude s’appuiera sur la constitution pour chaque commune d’un corpus toponymique. Les noms de lieux collectés seront classés en fonction de leur étymologie et dialectologie, de leurs périodes d’établissement et/ou d’évolution, ainsi que par leur rattachement thématique à des caractéristiques environnementales, paysagères ou socio-économiques.

Les toponymes seront tirés des bases de données cartographiques de l’IGN en libre accès comprenant la carte de Cassini (XVIIIe siècle), la carte d’état-major (1820-1866), et sur des cartes et images contemporaines (des années 1950 à 2010), ainsi que sur les archives cadastrales des trois communes (représentant trois à cinq jours de travail d’archive au total) ainsi que sur les archives départementales  de l’Isère et de la Drôme (un jour de travail à Saint Martin d’Hères et une demi-journée de travail à Valence).

Les corpus toponymiques seront augmentés par les observations et collectes réalisées sur le terrain et renforcés ensuite par les informations additionnelles fournies par les habitants et institutions locales. Dans un dernier temps, les toponymes classés dans le corpus seront intégrés à un Système d’Information Géographique permettant d’en visualiser la diversité thématique, dialectale et historique, et dont les données seront mises en accès libre via la plateforme Huma-Num. 

Les trois corpus toponymiques seront également mis à profit dans le cadre de la deuxième composante du programme de recherche. 

Indications touristiques de randonnée pédestre à Saint-Christophe-en-Oisans (Hameau de Lanchâtra)

3.2 Enquête de terrain

Le projet sera fondé sur une enquête de terrain répartie également dans les trois communes choisies, pour un total d’environ vingt jours de présence dans chaque commune.

Chacune des communes choisies devra être contactée en amont pour définir un calendrier d’enquête marqué initialement pour chaque localité par une réunion d’information et de prise de contact (par exemple dans une mairie), par une phase d’échanges in-situ, puis une phase d’entretiens.

Le travail d’enquête qualitative lui-même sera composé d’abord d’une phase d’échanges in-situ prenant la forme de parcours commentés avec des habitants des communes, issus des bourgs ou résidant dans des zones d’habitat dispersé. Les enquêtés seront recrutés lors des réunions d’information puis par échanges informels. Les parcours commentés feront l’objet de prise de notes et pourront être agrémentés de croquis réalisés par les enquêtés eux-mêmes et d’éléments de « cartographies sensibles » mais sans recourir à l’enregistrement et à des grilles d’entretien. Il sera souhaitable de réaliser de cinq à dix parcours commentés par commune. Ces parcours commentés serviront avant tout à guider la suite de l’enquête.

L’enquête sera prolongé dans un second temps par une phase d’entretiens qualitatifs semi-directifs auprès d’une quinzaine de personnes par commune. Un guide d’entretien sera élaboré à cet effet, et le corpus toponymique précédemment constitué sera accessible aux enquêtés et à l’enquêteur lors de l’entretien via l’ordinateur de l’enquêteur, ainsi que des documents cartographiques pouvant servir de support à la discussion. Les entretiens seront enregistrés et traités pour constituer le corpus ethnographique principal.

Le travail de terrain sera conclu à la fin du programme de recherche dans chaque commune par une réunion de restitution et de débat (par exemple dans une salle culturelle ou une bibliothèque) en lien avec les collectivités locales ou des associations de valorisation ou de protection des espaces et du patrimoine local.  

Éléments bibliographiques

Alderman, Derek. Place, naming, and the interpretation of cutural landscapes. In: Graham, B.; Howard, P. (eds.). The Ashgate Research Companion to Heritage and Identity. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2008, p.195-213.

Basso, Keith. Wisdom Sits in places: Landscape and language among the Western Apache, Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.

Boillat, Sébastien; Serrano, Elvira; Rist, Stephan; Berkes, Fikret.  The Importance of Place Names in the Search for Ecosystem-Like Concepts in Indigenous Societies: An Example from the Bolivian Andes. Environmental Management, v. 51, 2013, p. 663-678.

Bozonnet, Jean-Paul. Des monts et des mythes, l’imaginaire social de la montagne. Grenoble : Presses Universitaires de Grenoble, 1992

Burenhult, Niclas (ed.). Language and Landscape: Geographical Ontology in Cross-linguistic Perspective (special issue). Language Sciences, v. 30, n. 2, 2008.

Collignon, Béatrice. Les toponymes inuit, mémoire du territoire : étude de l’Histoire des Inuinnait. Anthropologie et Sociétés, v. 26, 2002, p. 45-69.

Commission Nationale de Toponymie, « Le patrimoine toponymique. Les noms de lieu : un patrimoine vivant », 2017, [en ligne] : http://cnig.gouv.fr/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/CNT-PCI-patrimoine-toponymique1.pdf (consulté le 06/10/2021)

Dauzat, Albert. La toponymie française. Paris : Payot, 1960.

Debarbieux, Bernard, Gumuchian, Hervé. Représentations spatiales et dénominations des territoires : l’inscription toponymique des aménagements touristiques récents dans les Alpes du Nord (Savoie). Revue de géographie alpine, 75, 2, 1987, p.171-182.

Douglas, Bronwen. Naming places: voyagers, toponyms and local presence in the fifth part of the world, 1500-1700. Journal of Historical Geography, v. 45, 2014, p. 12-24

Geertz, Clifford. Local Knowledge. New York: Basic Books, 1983.

Giraut, Frédéric; Houssay-Holzschuch Myriam; Guyot, Sylvain. The production of toponymy in contexts: interpreting the maps of critical toponymies and neotoponymies. In 5th Trends in Toponymy conference, Bern, 2012.

Gołaski, Janusz. Problèmes théoriques de toponymie cartographique des cartes à grande échelle (1 :5000-1 :25000). Essai de systematization. In: Blok, D. P. (ed.). Proceedings of the Eighth International Congress of Onomastic Sciences. International Congress of Onomastic Sciences. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton, 1963, p. 196-200.

Horsman, Stuart. The politics of toponyms in the Pamir mountains. Area, v. 38, n. 3, 2006, p. 279-291.

Kostanski, Laura. «What’s in a Name? »: Place and Toponymic Attachment, Identity and Dependence. A Case Study of the Grampians (Gariwerd) National Park Name Restoration Process, PhD Thesis, University of Ballarat (Australia), 2009.

Mark, David M.; Turk, Andrew G. Landscape Categories in Yindjibarndi: Ontology, Environment, and Language. Spatial Information Theory. Foundations of Geographic Information Science, v. 2825, 2003, p. 28-45.

Ounoughi, Samia. Les voyageurs britanniques et la pensée géographique sur les Alpes: analyse linguistique en contexte de la topogénèse à la toponymation. Revue de Géographie Historique, 17, 2020

Pégorier, André. Les Noms de lieux en France. Glossaire de termes dialectaux, 3ème édition revue et complétée par Sylvie Lejeune et Élisabeth Calvarin, Paris : IGN/Commission de toponymie, 2006 (mise à jour de André Pégorier, Glossaire des termes dialectaux permettant de trouver le sens d’un grand nombre de toponymes de la nouvelle carte de France au 1: 25000, Paris : Institut géographique national, 1963)

Quétier, Fabien, Florian Rivoal, Pascal Marty, Jacqueline de Chazal, Wilfried Thuiller, Sandra Lavorel. Social representations of an alpine grassland landscape and socio-political discourses on rural development ». Regional Environmental Change, 10, 2010, p.119-130

Radding, Lisa; Western, John. What’s in a name? Linguistics, geography and toponyms. Geographical Review, v. 100, 2010, p.394-412.

Recordon, J., « Le problème toponymique dans la cartographie technique française (aperçu historique) », Onomastica. Revue Internationale de Toponymie et d’Anthroponymie, 3-4, 1947, pp.309-321

Tamine, Michel, Dimitri Tarze, Sébastien Mustière, Vincent Badeau, Jean-Luc Dupouey. Changement climatique et toponymie. Étude de la répartition ancienne du hêtre à travers ses traces toponymiques. Revue Internationale de Geomatique, 25, 2, 2015, p.229-244

Tuan, Yi-Fu. Language and the making of place: a narrative-descriptive approach. Annals of the American Association of Geographers, v. 81, n. 4, 1991, p.684-690.”

Publications, projects, news

I should apologize briefly, for I have not published anything for months. Having been busy with the two main projects I was involved in during my postdoc in Grenoble last year, as well as with the linguistic geography seminar series and endless applications (sigh), I struggled to keep up with the pace of academic life after lockdown, but I eventually enjoyed very pleasant holidays before starting another postdoc in Grenoble six weeks ago.

Grenoble’s campus is always a sight to behold when the sun shines (image from Litt&Arts’ website)

I would have liked to publish a few conclusions on last year’s seminar, mention the excellent “Language and Territory Conference” in Béziers I attended online last June, and advertise Laura Péaud, Guilherme Ribeiro and Archie Davis‘ latest edited issue of the Brazilian geography journal Terra Brasilis on The Politics and Geopolitics of Translation (“Políticas e geopolíticas de tradução”) for which I wrote a short paper on place-names (in French), which I was lucky to see published alongside much more advanced articles by the aforementioned scholars and other geographers I admire, notably the ever sharp and witty Paul Claval.

https://journals.openedition.org/terrabrasilis/docannexe/file/9365/capa_tb15-small250.jpg

I could also have shared a few thoughts on the fascinating books I had the pleasure of reading this summer, notably Tom Isitt’s fascinating Riding in the Zone Rouge, a first-person narrative on a race through France’s postwar landscapes in 1919 and his own attempt to follow the wheels of the madmen who raced it more than a century ago.

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

<= ONE OF THE MOST SPECTA- CULAR-LOOKING BOOKS I OWN

=> A MAP OF THE RACE

My main occupation these days has been the first phase of a short contract within the Université Grenoble Alpes’ “Performance Lab” alongside the UMR Litt&Arts, during which I work on the development on an online dictionary. The dictionary revolves around the notion of performance and attempts to provide a toolbox to explore this field bilingually (French and English) through definitions, quotes from scientific literary as well as new, original texts by researchers and artists. It represents a staggering amount of work for our small team of researchers, designers, translators, but it is a worthy challenge and we hope to be able to deliver a complete bilingual, user friendly platform by the end of November.

The linguistic geography seminar will resume soon, with Philip Jagessar at the helm with me. There will be online sessions, but some will be in public, very certainly in Grenoble, but also possibly in London and Nottingham. More to follow!

Coquebert de Montbret and the birth of linguistic geography in France. A conversation with Sven Ködel

Sven Ködel was the first person I thought about when I decided to organise a seminar series on the history and methods of linguistic geography, having read about his fascinating research on the diplomat and savant Charles-Étienne Coquebert de Montbret (1751-1831), who carried out groundbreaking work on France’s linguistic geography during the early 19th century. Sven, now deputy director of the library at the German Historical Institute in Paris, will present his research during our next seminar session on Friday 26 March (2PM CET), alongside Guylaine Brun-Trigaud and Mathieu Avanzi.

 

Can you introduce yourself in a few words?

I am fom Germany but moved to France after completing a Master in Romance Studies at the universities of Bamberg, Paris and Urbino. Before starting a PhD, I participated in the Franco-German exchange programm for parliamentary interships, then decided to stay right in Paris in order to engage in a binational doctorate between the universities of Bamberg and Paris-Diderot which allowed me at the same time to give a interdisciplinary framework to my project, combining linguistics and history. Towards the end of my PhD project, I started working at the library of the German Historical Institute in Paris where I had been before as a trainee and then again as a doctoral fellow. After my PhD, I continued with a Master in Library and Information Science at the Humboldt University of Berlin, alongside my work as librarian at the GHI. Today I am deputy head of the institute’s library.

 

What is your current research topic? How does it relate to language geography or cartography?

My interests evolved along my activities. I am still loyal to Coquebert de Montbret’s research, namely in the field of linguistics, but looking more on his private library from the point of view from the history of science and the history of collections, trying to understand the library’s role as a research place and tool for historical, geographical and linguistic or philological work around the 1800s, with a focus on the multilingual dimension of the collection and its sub-collections covering the regional languages and dialects of France. Nonetheless geography and cartography form an important part of this library, as main interests of Charles-Étienne Coquebert de Montbret, whereas his son Eugène was drawn more to linguistics and philology. Today’s Fonds Montbret held at the library of Rouen still reserves a lot of surprises: it is not yet fully catalogued, and a few hundred maps were “rediscovered” only 20 years ago. I still maintain hope to find Coquebert de Montbret’s manuscript map of the languages spoken in France that was lost somewhat around the 1830s.

 

[Source]

What initially lead you to develop an interest in Coquebert de Montbret ?

My Master theses was about the connection beween language policies and national identity in France during the revolutionary period. Coquebert de Montbret’s linguistic survey is often briefly adressed within this context, but most publications focus on a particular language or dialect covered by the survey. I therefore knew that there would be a lot of manuscript material that was still unexploited. My aim however was to understand the methodological approach of Coquebert de Montbret and the scope of the survey as a whole. This replaced the enquête more in the history of linguistics and dialectology – and of linguistic geography of course – than in the social history of France’s regional idioms.

 

 

[Heinrich Berghaus, “Sprachkarte von Frankreich”, 1848, via Gallica]

 

 

What sources do you use? To which extent do you rely on fieldwork or archives, and materials by other scholars

For my doctoral thesis, I depended nearly exclusively on archival material: manuscript notes, correspondencies, maps, dialect samples… The documentation of the execution as well as the results of the survey are very complete but scattered over several archives and libraries. Some scholars cited passages or individual letters and language samples from this rich documentation, but it has never been entirely edited. This is still a project to come. As for the Coquebert de Montbrets’ private library, I am regularly in Rouen since a stage d’élève conservateur a few years ago to work with the physical book copies containing their annotations, markings on book provenance and so on. Isabelle Laboulais, who wrote her thesis on Charles-Étienne Coquebert de Montbret’s scientific biography, is the only scholar so far to have studied his book and map collection.

 

According to you, what can an historical approach bring to the study of linguistic geography?

As a student, my first encounter with linguistic geography was simply as a means of representation of language variation in space. I would therefore mention the necessary reflection on the concepts and tools we use, i.e. the context in which they originated, to what purpose they were developed and how they evolved over time. Beyond the use of historical data for the diachronic study of the geography of languages, this opens up questions on how the geographical and cartographical representation of language modified the perception of linguistic diversity and what consequences this might have brought, like political or ideological instrumentalizations or how maps as tools of knowledge influenced the work of linguists.

 

Can you name a couple of books about linguistic geography that you would recommend ?

As my topic falls in the period when geography and cartography were just being established as proper scientific disciplines, I would recommend three books on the history of French geography and their interconnection with humanities and social sciences:

Anne Marie Claire Godlewska, Geography Unbound: French Geographic Science from Cassini to Humboldt. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

Hélène Blais, Isabelle Laboulais, Charles W. J. Withers, Dominique Margairaz, Isabelle Surun, Géographies plurielles: Les sciences géographiques au moment de l’émergence des sciences humaines. Paris, France: L’Harmattan, 2006.

Jean-Marc Besse, Hélène Blais, Isabelle Surun (ed.), Naissances de la géographie moderne (1760-1860). Lieux, pratiques et formation des savoirs de l’espace, Paris, ENS Éditions, 2010.

 

 

See also :

Guylaine Brun Trigaud, “Les enquêtes dialectologiques sur les parlers du Croissant : corpus et témoins”, Langue française, n°93, 1992, “Enquête, corpus et témoin”, sous la direction de Gabriel Bergounioux”, en particulier p.26 et suivantes, URL: www.persee.fr/doc/lfr_0023-8368_1992_num_93_1_5809

Isabelle Laboulais-Lesage, Lectures et pratiques de l’espace. L’itinéraire de Coquebert de Montbret, savant et grand commis d’État (1755‑1831), Paris: Honoré Champion, 1999

Workshop and conference – Language contact in Francophone African countries [online]

Colleagues at the linguistic department in Grenoble have put up an online workshop that might be of interest for researchers with a focus on language contact or the linguistic geography of several African countries.Le 19 mars 202110h-11h. See information in French below and here.


“Dans le cadre des Journées de la francophonie, la communauté doctorante du LIDILEM (Laboratoire de Linguistique et Didactique des Langues Étrangères et Maternelles)  organise une matinée scientifique sur la thématique des francophonies africaines.
Cette matinée s’ouvrira sur une conférence plénière animée par le professeur Denis Creissels, professeur émérite en linguistique : «Dynamique des contacts de langues dans les pays francophones d’Afrique».
Cette conférence introduira la thématique au grand public en mettant en avant les spécificités des langues africaines (différences structurelles, situations sociolinguistiques) et leurs niveaux de contact avec le français.

À distance
https://us02web.zoom.us/j/81087548135?pwd=czZRMVRMWHprejRTSlQxSnJqbHB2dz09
ID de réunion : 810 8754 8135
Code secret : 123″

“Crossing historical and contemporary boundaries in geography and linguistics” – a linguistic geography session at the RGS Conference

Extract of Georg Wenker’s Linguistic atlas, via Sabine Kaufmann

Philip Jagessar and I are organising a session at the Royal Geographical Society conference this year. It’s rather broad title is “Crossing historical and contemporary boundaries in geography and linguistics” and we hope to attract participants with various backgrounds in geography. If you are interested, please get in touch wih me or Philip before 5 March 2021.

Abstract:

Language has a broad range of meaning to geographers, from a method of everyday communication to an abstract or metaphorical concept. The geographies of translation, speech and critical discussions over the primacy of English have become matters of linguistic interest among geographers in recent years. Despite this, linguistics – the study of language form and context – is understood to be a distinct discipline from geography, only intersecting in very narrow areas of overlapping interest, notably toponymy.

However, this was not always the case. Linguistics and its earlier iteration, philology, were a significant tradition in geography’s history. In the 19th century, geographical societies across Europe were centres of linguistic study with the growth of imperialism proving to be central to the relationship. Philology was not far behind geography as the science of empire. At the turn of the 20th century, the boundaries between disciplines were increasingly blurred as languages were considered a spatial and cultural phenomenon to be studied, within the broader context of language nationalism and growing questions over linguistic states or territories in the interwar period and during decolonisation.  

This session is seeking papers which recover this historical tradition in geography from different perspectives and different regions, exploring the entwined intellectual and methodological histories of geography and linguistics. We are also interested in papers from scholars whose work crosses the boundary between geography and linguistics today, and what that can inform us about the future of an interdisciplinary linguistic geography.

2021 Linguistic Geographies [online] seminar

Image source : https://www.deutschlandfunkkultur.de/landkarte-der-dialekte-er-isst-die-eier-immer-ohne-salz-und.3720.de.html?dram:article_id=279450

This week marks the beginning of the linguistic geography I organise online, with some of my favorite researchers in the field joining the conversation this Winter and Spring, in English and French. More will follow later this year.

Our first seminar on the history and methods of linguistic geography will be held online on Friday 8 January at 2pm (CET, in France, Germany, Italy ; or 1pm GMT in the UK).

Our speaker will be Philip JAGESSAR (School of Geography, University of Nottingham) speaking on: ‘Mapping definitely, the indefinite’: the Linguistic Survey of India as an experimental atlas

You can still read Philip’s interview with me earlier this year here and his abstract at the bottom of this article.

 
If you would like to attend this session or for any enquiries, please contact me (Felix de Montety) at felix.de-montety@umrpacte.fr 

All are welcome: please forward this to anyone you think might be interested in attending. Please get in touch with me if you are interested in presenting your own work later this year or if you would like to indicate an event or publication that might be of interest to us.

Full program below !

Calendar

(all sessions are held on Friday afternoons)

8 January 2021 (14h (France & CET) //1pm GMT (UK))                                   

English language session             

  • Felix DE MONTETY (CNRS, Grenoble, France)

Seminar introduction

  • Philip JAGESSAR (School of geography, University of Nottingham, U.-K.)

‘Mapping definitely, the indefinite’: the Linguistic Survey of India as an experimental atlas

29 January 2021 (14h (France & CET) //1pm GMT (UK))                       

English language session 

  • Alfred LAMELI (Research Center Deutscher Sprachatlas, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Germany)

Language Mapping through the centuries (19th century-present)

  • Stefan RABANUS (Department of Foreign Languages and Literatures, Università di Verona, Italy)   

Traditions and challenges in language mapping

5 Février/ February 2021(14h (France & CET) //1pm GMT (UK))                                  Séance en français / French language session  

  • Matteo DE CHIARA (Institut National des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, Paris, France)         

Quelles informations nous offre la toponymie ? Le cas de la vallée de Swat, Pakistan

  • Samia OUNOUGHI (LIDILEM, Université Grenoble Alpes, France)    

[titre à définir // tba]

26 Mars/ March 2021(14h (France & CET) //1pm GMT (UK))  

Séance en français / French language session      

  • Sven KÖDEL (Institut Historique Allemand, Paris, France)      

Cartographier les limites des langues dans l’empire napoléonien : l’enquête Coquebert de Montbret et la géographie de la langue française 

  • Mathieu AVANZI (Sorbonne Université, Paris, France)           

Cartographier la variation du français à l’ère des sciences participatives (2000-2020)

  • Guylaine BRUN-TRIGAUD (CNRS/Université Côte d’Azur, France)

Présentation de deux outils pour géolinguistes : ShinyDialect et ShinyClass 

Mapping definitely, the indefinite’: the Linguistic Survey of India as an experimental atlas

Philip Jagessar (University of Nottingham, School of Geography)

8 January 2021

In 1896, George Grierson – a member of the Indian Civil Service and noted philologist – commenced a monumental project to survey, classify and map the languages and dialects of India. A significant ambition of the Linguistic Survey of India (LSI) was to publish maps of the major languages and linguistic areas in India. At the start of the process Grierson had in mind which languages were to be mapped and which maps he wanted published in the LSI. Getting there meant making sense of and piecing together discrete forms of cartographic information so that the final maps were comprehensible to a broad readership composed of scholars, officials and laypersons.

Reading the final maps, on the other hand, suggests that the LSI could not settle on one way to map language. The forty-five maps which constitute a ‘linguistic atlas’ of India are diverse in style, size, scale and methods used. The only consistent feature of the maps is their lack of uniformity. This can partly be explained by the maps being made at different stages over two-and-a-half decades, and the changes in personnel, methods and material in that time. However, this paper argues that the maps of the LSI should be read as an experiment in which Grierson, through a network of surveyors, scholars and interactions with organisations such as the Survey of India, tries to find the most effective way to map language. Crucially, linguistic mapping is not an exact science – languages are only mapped approximately – and the variation in maps are a consequence of trying to capture India’s heterogeneous linguistic geography. The LSI’s maps were trying to answer questions which troubled Grierson such as how to map a language spoken over a large area or small area; how to map languages that extend beyond India; how to map an area with many different dialects; and how to map the geographical limits of a language or dialect. In other words, the LSI was an experimental atlas illustrating different methods and techniques to map the languages and dialects in the Indian subcontinent and beyond.    

Place-names, tree names and linguistic archaeology in Swāt. A conversation with Matteo De Chiara

Source: M. De Chiara

I met Matteo De Chiara in 2016, at the Mondes Indien et Iranien CNRS research unit just outside of Paris, home to several researchers studying the languages, histories and geographies of West, South and Central Asia, as well as to the excellent Cartorient mapping project. A renown specialist of contemporary and ancient Iranian languages, Matteo teaches Pashto at the Institut National des Langues et Civilisation Orientales (INALCO) and has notably published a volume titled Iranian Languages and Literatures of Central Asia (from the eighteenth century to the present)  (with Evelin Grassi, 2015). His more recent work has seen him delve into the linguistic geography of Pakistan’s Swāt valley and develop a fascinating study of its toponyms. Matteo kindly acepted to tell me more about this research project, his methodology and interest for language geography.

 

Can you introduce yourself in a few words ? What is your background ?

My name is Matteo De Chiara, an Italian from Rome. My mother tongue is Italian. I am a linguist by training: I fulfilled my Master studies in linguistics and Sanskrit at the University of Rome “La Sapienza”. After that, I pursued doctoral studies at the University of Naples “L’Orientale” in Iranian studies and, in particular, in Pashto historical phonetics and lexicology under the supervision of A.V. Rossi. Now, I am Maître de Conférences HDR of Pashto and Iranian Philology at the Inalco of Paris.

 

What is your current research topic about? How do you use linguistic maps?

At present, I’m continuing my linguistic research on Pashto. Recently my volume on the toponymy of the Swāt valley – a district in the province of Khyber-Pukhtunkhwa, north of Pakistan (Matteo De Chiara, Toponymy of the Swāt Valley. Linguistic archaeology, Lahore 2020) – has been published by the editor Sang-e Meel and thanks to the funding of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Swāt, the Ismeo of Rome and the Inalco in Paris. I have been working on this research project for at least the last seven years, under the auspices of the Italian Archaeological Mission in Swāt, founded in 1956 by Giuseppe Tucci, and now directed by L.M. Olivieri, and thanks to funding from the Inalco of Paris. The main goal of this work is to offer new materials on the linguistic and ethnic situation of Swāt from a diachronic point of view.

At the beginning of this project, all toponyms were originally sourced from the Government of Pakistan’s maps from 1950 and 1984. The data was later verified with the 1977 maps from the Soviet Union and from the US Army, which were consulted and used to integrate the cartographic base, and lastly, with Google maps and Google Earth, before being confirmed, corrected and improved with the help of Pashto speakers and residents in loco.

Swāt toponyms have a long history and have been treated in many sources since the 19th century and even before, not only in all English gazetteers, but also in the numerous archaeological surveys. Nowadays, the main language spoken in the Swāt valley is Pashto, in particular the Yusufzai dialect, with Urdu as national language and some minor Indo-Aryan languages, like Gujari. In the northern part of the valley two Dardic languages are also spoken, Torwali and Bashkarik, representing the last remnants of a Dardic substrate.

In recent times, at the time of the “Yusufzai State of Swāt”, the ruler of Swāt “Pashtunised” many village names, and hence the importance of the historical sources. However, notwithstanding this reform, non-Pashto names still exist today. In many cases, very ancient toponyms remain for modern designations, especially with regards to geonyms, i.e. the generic names of place, where we find names of non-Pashto origin – the majority Indo-Aryan.

Starting then from a review of all toponyms and thanks to the program QGIS, I could draw the maps of all toponyms, Tehsil (sub-divisions of the District) by Tehsil and typology by typology, according to their linguistic origin. As an example, I include here the map containing the etymology of rivers.

 

Source : M. De Chiara

 

What initially lead you to develop an interest in toponyms and geonyms, as well as for linguistic maps?

During my doctoral studies, I spent one year in Paris to study the Pashto language (Paris is the only place in Europe where a stable academic master exists). After that, I was invited to Swāt by the director of the Archaeological mission to Swāt, L.M. Olivieri, to improve my Pashto proficiency. I stayed for four months in Swāt in a Pashtun environment. This was at the end of 2006, and I left a few days before the start of the war of 2007-2008 in Swāt. Some years after that, L.M. Olivieri, who developed an innovative methodological model of study for this region, based on a multidisciplinary approach, proposed that I study the toponyms of the Swāt valley.

As toponyms are the names of places, this project obliged me to develop an interest in geography and linguistic geography. I must confess that I was never interested to these topics before. However, thanks to this research, I discovered how fundamental an understanding of the physical features of the environment together with the dynamics of the history are, in order to appreciate linguistic contact: this is particularly true in a milieu of strong multilingualism.

I spent some time, guided by Emmanuel Giraudet of my research unit at the CNRS (UMR 8041 – CERMI), to learn how to use the program QGIS, which enabled me to firstly draw geographic maps, and then the resulting linguistic maps.

As a consequence of this project, I now see how important linguistic maps are for the identification of isoglosses. In my specific case, as I dealt mainly with a single dialect, i.e. Yusufzai Pashto, I individuated some main lexical isoglosses existing in the toponymy of the Swāt valley.

Another interesting issue, which I am confronting at the moment, are the geonyms, i.e. the generic names of places, as ‘mountain’, ‘valley’, etc., from which one can derive useful information on linguistic geography and on toponymical dynamics as well as methodological suggestions on the semantics and etymology of toponyms.

 

Source: Designer429/Wikimedia Commons

 

What sources do you use? To which extent do you rely on fieldwork, and materials by other scholars?

As stated above, I firstly relied on the maps of the Pakistani Government, of the Soviet Union and of the US Army, implemented by Google maps and Google Earth. The maps contained in the archaeological surveys of the first part of the 20th century (in particular to those contained in the books by A. Stein and G. Tucci), as well as the more ancient Gazetteers of the 19th century (cf. for instance those by H.G. Raverty and H.W. Bellew), also provided useful and complete data.

However, all of this without checking with Pashto speakers and residents in loco would have been useless. In order to verify all data and to take an advantage of their linguistic expertise, I brought three missions to Swāt, in particular to Saidu Sharif, not far from Mingora, where the headquarters of the Italian Archaeological Mission are located. In Swāt (I travelled up to Bahrain, in the north of the valley) I could verify my material with language informants: I always received excellent hospitality and warm friendship. I am really grateful for all the encouragement and information I received, and for the many agreeable moments I had there during my visits.

The next step of my research was to study in detail the toponyms in two directions: from one side, a comparison with the typology of toponyms, from the other, the linguistic analysis proper. For the first task I compared Gazetteers and toponymical works near or further from my context: for instance, I carefully consulted the useful work of L.W. Adamec, Historical and political gazetteer of Afghanistan, in six volumes; the works of W. Eilers and M. Mokri, among others, on the toponymy in other Iranian languages; and also the Atlante toponomastico della provincia di Cremona, edited by V. Ferrari, dealing with the toponymy of a province in northern Italy. I must cite here also the work of W.Kh. Hakimzay, in Pashto, entitled Daɣa zmunǧ kәlay day [This is our village], which provides useful etymologies, not always reliable, but pioneering, even if quite neglected in Swāt.

For the second task, I consulted dictionaries and repertories of more or less local languages, belonging to many different linguistic families: Iranian, Dardic and Kafiri, Indo-Aryan, Turkish, Mongolian, Dravidian, Muṇḍa (Austroasiatic).

L.O. Olivieri provided me with useful data, such as local chronologies, toponyms of Alexander’s time, etc.: all of this doubtless facilitated my research.

Source: M. De Chiara

 

According to you, what can your approach bring to the study of linguistic geography?

A multidisciplinary approach, including geography, linguistics, history, archaeology, but also botany and others, can doubtless bring new fuel to the study of linguistic geography. For instance, in my research I identified many names of pastures, passes and villages containing tree names, as shown in this partial list:

  • °Banr (baṇ) ‘forest’
  • Amlukbanr (amlukbaṇ) ‘forest of the sloes’
  • Asharbanr (ašārbaṇ) ‘forest of the silver firs’
  • Ghuzbanr (γuzbaṇ) ‘forest of the walnuts’
  • Gujarbanr (guǰarbaṇ) ‘forest of the Gujars’
  • Loebanr (loybaṇ) ‘big forest’
  • Mabanr (mābaṇ) ‘garden of the moon’
  • Surbanr (surbaṇ) ‘red forest’
  • Tut banrin (tut baṇin) ‘densely wooded by mulberries’
  • Achro Banda (ačro bānda) ‘pasture of the silver firs’
  • Ranjro Sar (ranǰro sar) ‘mountain of the deodars’
  • Nakhtar (naxtar) ‘Himalayan pine’
  • Talgo Nakhtar ‘id.’
  • Shaurai Khwar (šawray xwaṛ) ‘river of the small sissoo’?
  • Banj Banda (banǰ bānda) ‘pasture of the quercus ilex’
  • Tarkana (tarkāna) ‘maple’
  • Baret (baret) ‘bird cherry’

In order to do that, I also consulted the volumes by M. Alam on Trees and Shrubs in Afghanistan (2011) and Sultan-i-Rome on Land and Forest Governance in Swat. Transition from Tribal System to State to Pakistan (2016), as well as Qadeer M.A. Khan’s thesis (n.p.) on Working Plan for the Forests of Swat and Swat-Kohistan, Swat State (Malakand Agency, 1965-1980). The approach of F. Barth in his article on the “Ecologic Relationships of Ethnic Groups in Swat, North Pakistan” (1956) is also important.

Source: https://www.nhbs.com/trees-and-shrubs-of-afghanistan-book

 

This has consequences on our understanding of the economic processes as well as on the drawing of linguistic maps. In this way, I think that my approach can really contribute to linguistic geography and, in particular, to the lexical domain.

Clearly, a more in-depth investigation, valley by valley, could also enhance our knowledge. In this concern, I think that my future research in this domain will follow two paths: a micro-toponymy collection, devoted to local names and traditions; and a macro-toponymy collection, outlining more general comparisons and historical influences.

All these aspects deserve further investigation and my hope is that this work will lead to new interest and energy, and will be considered not a conclusive result, but an open and collaborative starting point.

 

Source: M. De Chiara

 

Can you name a couple of books about linguistic geography that you would recommend and explain why in a few words?

I will leave aside the classics of linguistic geography, which already influenced the research in this domain. I would like to mention an inspiring book for me, and a continuous source of materials: the two volumes of G. Fussman’s Atlas linguistique des parlers Dardes et Kafirs, published in 1972 in Paris.

The first volume contains 167 linguistic maps, arranged word by word, as ‘tree’, ‘cow’, ‘summertime’ or ‘to see’. The area covered by the maps goes from the north of Kabul in the west, to Gilgit and Srinagar in the east, and from the springs of the Chitral river in the north, to Peshawar and Parachinar in the south. The second volume contains the commentary to the linguistic maps. Every map indicates the synonyms for the words in the different Dardic and Kafir languages spoken in the area, in addition to  languages with a different origin: Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Turkic, Burushaski. The three useful indexes contain linguistic matters, the cited words and phonetic treatments.

Not only does this work concern exactly the region I am interested in, and represents an inevitable tool for all those dealing with this area, but it is also an important methodological tool. Starting with the linguistic maps, G. Fussman draws verified and reliable conclusions on the movements of the different peoples. For instance, in my work I could verify the accuracy of Fussman’s analysis when he stated that the Damelis and the Gawars would have been expulsed from Swāt “vers le milieu du XVe siècle par les Pathans” (Fussman 1972, I: 23).

The second work I like to name is the Atlas Linguistique de l’Afgahnistan. Unfortunately, it has never been published, but its materials are kept at the archives of Berne. This remarkable research project intended to provide linguistic maps for the whole Afghanistan. In order to do that, many questionaries were submitted to language informants and several scholars took part in the undertaking, including G. Morgenstierne, one of the leading researchers of Iranian philology in the 20th century.

 

Source : https://www.philology.no/ala

Fortunately, an Arbeitspapier was published in Berne in 1974 by the three authors, G. Redard, Ch.M. Kieffer and S. Sana: L’atlas linguistique des parlers iraniens: Atlas de l’Afghanistan. In particular,  the article by Ch.M. Kieffer is remarkable: “L’établissement des cartes phonétiques: premiers résultats”. This work of linguistic geography shows its usefulness and possible developments, as it appears from a draft of a paper presented by Ch.M. Kieffer in the Colloque sur l’établissement d’un Centre d’étude de la langue et de la littérature paṣ̌tō, Caboul, 22-29 novembre 1975, and entitled “Dialectologie du paṣ̌tō. Distribution et typologie des parlers paṣ̌tō d’après les premières cartes de l’Atlas linguistique de l’Afghanistan (ALA)”. My hope is that this work will one day see the light.

Moreover, this project was not isolated: indeed, starting from the ’50s, G. Redard himself had also begun preliminary work for a linguistic atlas of Iran and has published many articles on Iranian dialectology.

 

 

See also: De Chiara, M. (2019). Swāt Hydronymy at the Border between Iranian and Indo-Aryan Languages, Iran and the Caucasus, 23(1), 64-74. doi: https://doi.org/10.1163/1573384X-20190106

The Catalan Atlas, transcriptions, translations and toponyms

I have always loved the 14th century masterpiece now known as the Catalan Atlas. I never saw it with my own eyes though, even when I worked at its home, the Bibliothèque nationale de France, but whether online or in print, it still is an enduring source of awe and inspiration to this day and I regularly find myself coming back to its immense breadth, to the simple clarity of its era-defining cartographical language and to its colourful, mysterious, illustrations.

 

Thanks to a recent Twitter thread by the excellent press cartographer Jules Grandin, I just discovered the Cresques project, a webpage by aerospace engineer and independent map scholar Juan Ceva. Based in California but originally from Spain’s Majorca island, Ceva has made available fascinating materials and secondary literature, notably by Gabriel Llompart and Jaume Riera.

The illustrious Catalan Atlas was produced in or around 1375, very probably by the Majorcan cartographer Abraham Cresques and possibly his son. Acquired early on by the French monarchy, the portulan chart in 6 sheets is still held in the collections of the Bibliothèque nationale de France‘s manuscripts department and has been the subject of many exhibitions and descriptions. While many mysteries still surround this piece of work and its author, Ceva’s contribution is very enlightening for the non-expert map enthusiast that I am, notably because it provides keys to decipher and understand descriptions and toponyms from the richly decorated maps, for instance in the top left of panel 3: “En Inbèrnia ha moltes illes merevellosas…“.

 

The full inscription is translated : “In Hibernia [Ireland] there are many wonderful islands whose existence can be credible; among them, there is a small one where men never die, because when they are about to die of old age, they are transported outside the island.”

 

 

Other fascinating and very helpful parts of this webpage include transcriptions and translations of the legends as well as of Balearic toponyms. I am by no means a specialist and pre-18th century maps do not relate to my own research work but those toponyms and this map bring back very fond memories of Menorca Island, where I spent time with my grandparents and parents as a child, near Ciutadella, the Catalan Atlas“citaela”.

 

Congratulations to Juan Ceva for making the language of those maps easily understandable by us all and stimulating original research on this fascinating piece of cartographical history. May it inspire others to do the same for masterpieces such as the ethno-linguistic map accompanying the Dīwān Lughāt al-Turk [ديوان لغات الترك], Mahmud al-Kashgari’s landmark 11th century encylopedia of the Turkic languages and people.

 

 

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